George Clifford
(1685 - 1760)


Hortus Cliffortianus
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Letters: Nine letters from Clifford to Linnaeus are kept in the Linnean Society of Londen. All of them
are written in Dutch and originate from after Linnaeus’s departure. To view the letter of November 23
1737: link. An example of Clifford's waxseal and signature can be found here.

candidatus medicinae: accepted candidate for a degree in the medical sciences.

ex libris: "from the library of" in this case "from the herbarium of"

Index alter plantarum Book with Boerhaave's ordening of the plant kingdom

Natural History of Jamaica: Book by Sloane. A rare copy was owned by Clifford, who offered this copy to
Burman as a token of good will for 'stealing' Linnaeus.

HC: Hortus Cliffortianus

Species Plantarum (1753): Linnaeus's book in which he introduces the consequent method to group,
name and describe plants and animals. This ordening system is still in use nowadays.

Systema Natura: Manuscript of Linnaeus with which he arrived in Holland, in which he explains his
ordening system based on sexual characteristics of the flowers. He found Gronovius willing to pay
for the publication of this manuscript.

type specimens : each plant name has an authentic [herbarium] specimen representing the ideas of the
author concerning the species. The herbarium material of Clifford therefor represents Linnaeus's
ideas concerning these species.