George Clifford
(1685 - 1760)

who is who

Hortus Cliffortianus
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Amman, Johann (1707-1741)

Professor of botany at St. Petersburg, curator of Sloanes Herbarium. Donator of one collection (now housed in the British Museum), was probably added after the publication of the Hortus Cliffortianus . Linnaeus named the genus Ammannia after him L. 1737: 344 en L. 1753:119.> back

Augar, Isaac Eleazar (?-1737)
  Medical doctor and collector, doctor in the hospital and director of the Hortus Medicus at Parimaribo from 1734 to 1737. > back
Banks, Joseph sir (1743 - 1820)

Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and president of the Royal Society of London. Purchased the Clifford Herbarium in 1791. He was represented by the botanist Sebald Justinus Brugmans from Leiden at the sale of Clifford’s collections. After his death the collection was donated to the British Museum by his successor, Robert Brown. > back

Boerhaave, Herman (1668-1738)
  Doctor and botanist from the Leiden Botanic Garden, Professor of medicine, botany and chemistry. Through his contemporaries and students he became 'praeceptor Europe', master of Europe. A close contact of Clifford’s who also stimulated Clifford’s interest in plant systematics. The gentlemen exchanged plants with one another. His handwriting can also be found in the Clifford collections. The Clifford collections were ordered prior to Linnaeus according to Boerhaave’s Index alter plantarum. Linnaeus named after him the genus Boerhaavia L. 1737: 17, L.1753: 3, Nyctaginaceae. > back
Brown, Robert (1773-1858)

English botanist, librarian and assistant to Joseph Banks. He obtained the Clifford Herbarium after the death of Banks. Subsequently donated Banks herbarium to the British Museum, where he became Keeper of the Banksian Botanical Collection. > back

Brugmans, Sebald Justinus (1763-1819)

Professor of botany and director in the Hortus Botanicus at Leiden. He was intermediary for the sale of the Clifford Herbarium between Clifford’s heirs and Sir Joseph Banks. > back

Burman, Johannes (1706-1779)
  Director of the Amsterdam Botanic Garden and professor of Botany, through him Clifford was introduced to Linnaeus. Supplier of East Indian plants to the Clifford collection, through his excellent connections with the VOC. Linnaeus named after him the Burmannia L. 1737:128, L. 1753:287, Burmanniaceae. > back
Burman, Nicolaas Laurens (son)

Son of the previous, and his successor as director of the Amsterdam Botanic Garden and profesoor of Botany. Also used ornamentation in his collections. > back

Camp, Hendrik Zeegersz. van de ()
  One of the first owners of ‘de Hartecamp’. Owner from 1662-1666, considered to be the giver of the name by connecting his surname to the presence of deer. > back
Catesby, Mark (1682-1749)
  English naturalist. He went on two trips to America; in 1726 he visited the Bahamas, where he collected. Linnaeus named after him the genus Catesbaea L. 1753:109-110, Rubiaceae. > back
Clifford, George (1685-1760)

Owner of ‘de Hartekamp’, banker, and governor of the Dutch East India Company and private plant collector, client of the Hortus Cliffortianus. He employed in 1735-1738 Linnaeus as his physician and private botanist on his estate. Linnaeus ordered and described his impressive collections: Musa Cliffortiana (1736), Viridarium Cliffortianum (1737) en Hortus Cliffortianus (1737).The greater part of the annotations in the collection were made in his own hand. Linnaeus named after him the genus Cliffortiana L. 1737:463, t.30-32, L. 1753:1038, Rosaceae. > back

Clifford, Pieter (1712 – 1788)

Oldest son of George Clifford and governor of the West India Company. In 1760 he inherited de Hartekamp, but not his father’s passion for plants. After his death the estate was auctioned on the 2nd June 1788, probably due to financial problems relating to the bankruptcy of the Clifford Bank in 1772. > back

Du Bois, Charles (1656-1740)
  Donator of one collection (now housed in the British Museum), was probably added after the publication of the Hortus Cliffortianus. > back
Ehret, Georg Dionys (1708-1770)

Botanical artist. During a visit which lasted one month to de Hartekamp, he produced virtually all of the illustrations of the Hortus Cliffortianus. He also designed a beautiful schematic review of Linnaeus. Linnaeus’s classification system based on reproductive features. Through this he became an invaluable asset for the rapid dissemination of Linnaeus’s systematic classification. > back

Luca Ghini (1500-1566)

Lector of medicinal plant science at the University of Bologne, later at Pisa and founder of the first botanical garden in the world, at Pisa. From what is known he introduced the use of dried herbarium material for knowledge-sharing. For further details regarding his collections, click here. > back

Gorter, David de, ()

Son of Johannes de Gorter, professor of botany and director of the botanical garden at Harderwijk. Beginning 1735 Linnaeus stayed in Harderwijk, in preparation of his PhD defense. He defended his thesis for Johannes Gorter, and David and linnaeus became friends; together they made botanical collections near harderwijk. Later, David was the successor of his father as profesoor and as director of the botanical garden. He also used ormanets on his herbariumcollections (Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, afd. Leiden). Linnaeus named after him the genus Gorteria L.1759:1229. > back

Gronovius, Jan Frederik (1690 -1762)
  Mayor of Leiden and curator of the Leiden University, student of Boerhaave . Certainly used a tasselled ribbon as his ornamentation, click here. His handwriting is also present in the Clifford collections. Provided plants and seeds of Virginia for the Clifford collection. Financial backer of the printing of Linnaeus’s first book, ‘Systema Natura’. Linnaeus nnamed after him the genus Gronovia L.1737:74, L. 1753:202, Loasaceae.> back
Haller, Albrecht von (1707-1777)

Swiss physician and botanist, who studied with Boerhaave in Leiden. Professor of mathematics and botany at Bazel,later profesoor of anatomy, chirgery and botany at Göttingen. He used also ornamentations in his collections. He provided alpine plants for the Clifford collection. He was a declared opponent of Linnaeus’s new systematic classification after the publication of his ‘Systema Naturae’ (1735). Haller considered this new system to be unnatural. His handwriting can also be found in the Clifford collections (now housed in the British Museum). > back

Heniger, J. (1941- present )

Biohistorian from Utrecht University. He published on the history of botany in the 17th and 18th century. Together with Onno Wijnands he undertook research of the Clifford Herbarium. > back

Hinlopen, Johan (1648 – 1709)
  Postmaster of the Antwerp Post Office [in charge of running the postal route Amsterdam-Antwerp]. In 1693 he bought the land which later became ‘de Hartekamp’, built a house on the site and surrounded it with a beautiful garden. During this early stage an orangerie was build. > back
Houttuyn, Maarten, (1720-1798)
  Medical doctor, publicist of natural history and private collector from Amsterdam. As private collector he gathered an enormous amount of botanical and zoological collections , which he used for his famous Natuurlijke Historie (1761-1785). In this book he demonstrates the natural system of Linnaeus. He also used ornamentations in his collections’. > back
Kleynhoff, Christiaan ( -1777)
  Physician and botanist, mayor of Culemborg; highest physician of the VOC at Batavia; in his role as director of the Hortus Botanicus at Batavia he send herbariummaterial to Burman. > back
Linnaeus, Carl (1707-1778)

For general information, see links. His role in connection with the Clifford collections can be found here > back

Lunsingh Scheurleer, Theo H.(1911 - 2002)
  Head of Sculpture and Art in the Rijksmuseum (1943 – 1964) and thereafter held the chair in Art History in Leiden until 1981. After his death the Museum Boymans van Beuningen in Rotterdam bought his collection of drawings. > back
Marot , Daniël (ca. 1663-1752)
  French ornamentation engraver, architect and garden designer. One of his designs was Het Loo Palace as well as part of the garden. He was also responsible for designing parts of Hampton Court and Kensington Palace in England. Apart from his garden and interior designs, Daniël Marot had influence through his engravings a style which he managed to widely extend through his ornamentations and motifs. > back
Meerburgh, Nicolaas (1734-1814)
  Gardener, botanist and botanical artist. Keeper of the Leiden Botanical Garden under Adriaan van Royen, David van Royen and Sebald Justinus Brugmans. He also used ornamentation in his collections. > back
Miller, Phillip (1691-1771)

Keeper of the Chelsea Physic Garden. Collected plants from over the world and also described new species. Provided plants and many seeds from South America for the Clifford collection. A number of specimens in the Clifford Herbarium, now in the British Museum, bear annotations written in his hand. Linnaeus named after him the genus Milleria L. 1737:425, L. 1753:919, Asteraceae.> back

Nietzel, Dietrich (1703 -1756?)

Head gardener at de Hartekamp during the same period as Linnaeus. Later, on the recommendation of Linnaeus, became the keeper of the Botanic Garden at Uppsala. > back

Portz, J.D.V. (1688-1753)

Colonel of the infantery in the army of the Republic at Leiden. His natural history cabinet was sold in Amsterdam on the 18th March 1754. Some of these collections were incorporated into the Clifford collections. > back

Röell, Willem (1700-1775)
  Profesoor of anatomy at Amsterdam. Hij owned the mansion 'De Keukenhof' at Lisse, where he brought together a botanical collection. Donator of some Lithophyta (stone plants) and African seed to the Clifford collection. > back
Royen, Adriaan van (1704-1779)
  Botanist at the Leiden Botanical Garden and director of the Leiden Botanical Garden. Student of Boerhaave. Much of his collection originated from the Leiden Botanical Garden. During the last winter that he was there (1737) Linnaeus stayed with van Royen at his home. Van Royen’s handwriting can be found in the Clifford collection and a number of specimens have the vase ornamentation of A. van Royen. Linnaeus named after him the genus Royena L. 1737:149, L.1753:397, Ebenaceae.> back
Royen, David van (1727-1799)
  Nephew and successor of Adriaan as botanist in the Leiden Botanical Garden. Inherited the collections from his uncle and greatly added to the collection himself. His handwriting can also be found in the Clifford collections. > back
Schijnvoet, Jacobus (1673-1744)
  Engraveur and artist at Amsterdam. > back
Sherard, William (1659-1728)
  Amateur botanist, English consul at Smyrna; he owned a beautiful botanical garden and important botanical collection at Eltham. He was a personal friend of Boerhaave. Became part of Clifford’s international network and in William’s herbarium in Oxford, some of Clifford’s collections can also be found. Linnaeus named after him the genus Sherardia L. 1737:33, L. 1753:102, Rubiaceae. > back
Siegesbeck, Johann Georg (1686-1755)
  Pruisian physiacian and botanist, director of the botanical garden at St. Petersburg. He provided plants from Russia for the Clifford-collection. Although originally a friend of Linnaeus, he became later a serious criticizer of Linnaeus’s work based on moral grounds. Linnaeus named after him the genus Sigesbeckia L. 1737:412, t.23, L. 1753:900, Asteraceae. > back
Sloane, Hans sir (1660-1753)
  Medical doctor, scientist and collector. His collections form the beginnings of the Natural History Museum, London; his enormous herbaria were kept by Amman. Linnaeus named after him the genus Sloanea L. 1753:512, Elaeocarpaceae. > back
Suringar, W.F.R. ()

Director of the Leiden herbarium. Quite possibly the person who gave the Clifford Herbarium to Valckenier Suringar, his son. > back

Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de (1656-1708)

Professor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes in Paris. He designed a clear concept of a plantgenus, based on floral charecteristics and he propagated a classification system based on structure of the petals. Boerhaave and later Linnaeus adopted his genus-concept. Linnaeus named after him the genus Tournefortia L. 1737:48, L. 1753:1038, Rosaceae.> back

Vaillant, Sebastien (1669-1722)

Démonstrateur des plantes' at the Jardin des Plantes in Parijs. During the opening of the Jardin on a new location (1717) he held a famous speech, Discours sur la structure des fleurs, in which he demonstates sexuality in plants in analogy with the animal, c.q. human sexuality. Vaillant proposed a classification system based on the amount of stamens and ovaries. Boerhaave published this speech rede in Leiden in 1718. Linnaeus elaborated on Vaillants ideas and incorporated them into his own famous sexual system. He donated a fern to the Clifford collection (now in the British Museum). > back

Valckenier Suringar, Jan (1864-1932)

Professor of botany at Wageningenm quite possibly received the Clifford Herbarium in 1889 as a present from his father, Prof. W.F.R. Suringar, then director of the Leiden herbarium. His handwriting often appears in the part of the Clifford collections now housed at Wageningen. > back

Wandelaar, Jan (1690-1759)

Engraver of plants in the Hortus Cliffortianus,, primarily based on the illustrations of Ehret, but also a number are originals. Made the beautiful ‘frontipiece’ for the Hortus Cliffortianus. > back

Wijnands, D. Onno (1945-1993)

Director of the Botanic Garden in Wageningen. As classical botanist, he was very interested in the history of plant sciences. Undertook research, along with J. Heniger, on the Clifford-Herbarium. > back